BACKGROUND: Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) has been extensively applied for sustained drug delivery and vaccine delivery system. However, vaccines delivered by PLGA nanoparticles alone could not effectively activate antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to induce strong immune responses. PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to design polyethylenimine (PEI)-modified Chinese yam polysaccharide (CYP)-encapsulated PLGA nanoparticles (CYPP-PEI) as a vaccine delivery system and evaluate the adjuvant activities in vitro and in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cationic-modified nanoparticles exhibited high antigen absorption and could be efficiently taken by APCs to enhance the immune responses. Therefore, PEI-modified CYP-encapsulated PLGA nanoparticles (CYPP-PEI) were prepared. The storage stability and effective adsorption capacity for porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) antigen of these antigen-absorbed nanoparticles were measured for one month. Furthermore, the adjuvant activity of CYPP-PEI nanoparticles was evaluated on macrophages in vitro and through immune responses triggered by PCV-2 antigen in vivo. RESULTS: The PCV-2 absorbed CYPP-PEI nanoparticles showed excellent storage stability and high absorption efficiency of PCV-2 antigen. In vitro, CYPP-PEI nanoparticles promoted antigen uptake, enhanced surface molecular expressions of CD80 and CD86, and improved cytokine secretion of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-12p70 in macrophages. After immunization with CYPP-PEI/PCV-2 formulation in mice, the expressions of surface activation markers on dendritic cells which located in draining lymph nodes were increased, such as MHCI, MHCII, and CD80. In addition, CYPP-PEI nanoparticles induced dramatically high PCV-2-specific IgG levels which could last for a long time and stimulated the secretion of subtype antibodies and cytokines. The results showed that CYPP-PEI could induce Th1/Th2 mixed but Th1-biased type immune responses. CONCLUSION: Polyethylenimine-modified Chinese yam polysaccharide-encapsulated PLGA nanoparticle was a potential vaccine delivery system to trigger strong and persistent immune responses.
- 期刊：International journal of nanomedicine 15, 5527-5543 (2020)