Nanoparticle vaccine delivery systems have been emerging strategies for inducing potent immune responses to prevent and treat infectious diseases and cancers. The properties of nanoparticle vaccine delivery systems, such as nanoparticle size, surface charge, and antigen release kinetics, have been extensively studied and proven to effectively influence the efficacy of vaccine responses. However, a few types of research have focused on the influence of administration routes of nanoparticle vaccines on immune responses. Herein, to investigate how the administration routes affect the immune responses of nanoparticles vaccines, we developed a nanoparticles system (NPs), in which the ovalbumin (OVA) and Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) were incorporated into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles and the polyethylenimine (PEI) was coated on the surface of nanoparticles. The NPs vaccine was intramuscularly and subcutaneously injected (im and sc) into mice, and the immune responses induced by these two delivery routes were compared. The results showed that both im and sc administration of NPs vaccines elicited strong antigen-specific IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a antibody responses, with no significant difference. In contrast, NP vaccines with sc administration significantly enhanced immune responses, such as enhancing the recruitment and activation of dendritic cells (DCs) in lymph nodes (LNs), promoting the antigen transport into draining lymph nodes, increasing the secretion of cytokines, improving the ratio of CD4(+)T cells to CD8(+) T cells, activating cytotoxic T lymphocyte response, and inducing a strong cellular immune response. These results may provide a new insight onto the development of vaccine delivery systems.
- 期刊：Molecular pharmaceutics 18, 2274-2284 (2021)