8:2 Fluorotelomer Alcohol Inhibited Proliferation and Disturbed the Expression of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines and Antigen-Presenting Genes in Murine Macrophages

  • 作者:Kong, B., Wang, X., He, B., Wei, L., Zhu, J., Jin, Y. & Fu, Z.
  • 期刊:Chemosphere 219, 1052-1060 (2019)
  • 阅读原文

Fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs, F(CF(2))(n)CH(2)CH(2)OH) are members of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and are increasingly used in surfactant and polymer industries. FTOHs pose hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and endocrine-disrupting risks. Nevertheless, there is limited research on the immunotoxic effects of FTOHs. In this study, we examined the immunotoxicity of 8:2 FTOH (n?=?8) on murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. The results showed that 8:2 FTOH exposure reduced cell viability in dose- and time-dependent manners, inhibited cell proliferation and caused cell cycle arrest. Exposure to 8:2 FTOH downregulated the mRNA expression of some cell cycle-related genes, including Cdk4, Ccnd1, Ccne1, and p53, but also upregulated the mRNA expression of other cell cycle related genes, including Ccna2, p21, and p27. Additionally, exposure to 8:2 FTOH under unstimulated and LPS-stimulated conditions downregulated the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory genes, including Il1b, Il6, Cxcl1, and Tnfa, and secreted levels of IL-6 and TNF-α. Treatment with 8:2 FTOH upregulated the mRNA expression of antigen-presenting-related genes, including H2-K1, H2-Ka, Cd80, and Cd86. The abovementioned immunotoxic effects caused by 8:2 FTOH in RAW 264.7?cells were partially or completely blocked by co-treatment with hydralazine hydrochloride (Hyd), a reactive carbonyl species (RCS) scavenger. However, exposure to 8:2 FTOH did not exhibit any effects on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level with or without LPS stimulation. Taken together, these results suggest that 8:2 FTOH may have immunotoxic effects on macrophages and RCS may underlie the responsible mechanism. The present study aids in understanding the health risks caused by FTOHs.