Cerebrovascular dysfunction characterized by the neurovascular unit (NVU) impairment contributes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, a cerebrovascular-targeting multifunctional lipoprotein-biomimetic nanostructure (RAP-RL) constituted with an antagonist peptide (RAP) of receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), monosialotetrahexosyl ganglioside, and apolipoprotein E3 is developed to recover the functional NVU and normalize the cerebral vasculature. RAP-RL accumulates along the cerebral microvasculature through the specific binding of RAP to RAGE, which is overexpressed on cerebral endothelial cells in AD. It effectively accelerates the clearance of perivascular Aβ, normalizes the morphology and functions of cerebrovasculature, and restores the structural integrity and functions of NVU. RAP-RL markedly rescues the spatial learning and memory in APP/PS1 mice. Collectively, this study demonstrates the potential of the multifunctional nanostructure RAP-RL as a disease-modifying modality for AD treatment and provides the proof of concept that remodeling the functional NVU may represent a promising therapeutic approach toward effective intervention of AD.